Started: in England at about 1760, made radical changes in every level of civilization all over the world.
The heavy industry growth brought a flood of new building materials, such as cast iron, steel, and glass, with which architects and engineers devised structures of unimaginable size, form, and function.
Improvements to the iron making process encouraged the building of bridges and other structures. Large indoor open spaces were now made possible with the use of strong iron framed construction; this was ideal for factories, museums and train stations.
New urban districts of factories and workers’ housing and the public taste of the newly rich. Architects were employed to build canals, tunnels, bridges, and railroad stations.
The Crystal Palace created to enclose the Great Exhibition of 1851 in England,
was a glass and iron showpiece.
Designer: Joseph Paxton
duration: six months,
its design mimicked the greenhouses that were his customary stock in trade. It was spacious enough to enclose mature existing trees within its walls.
the palace was conceived to symbolize this industrial, military and economic superiority of Great Britain.
The building was divided into a series of courts depicting the history as well as exhibits industry and the natural world. Major concerts were held in the Palace’s huge arched Centre Transept
The Crystal Palace contained series of fountains, comprising almost 12,000 individual jets. The largest of these threw water to a height of 250ft. Some 120,000 gallons of water flowed through the system when it was in full play.
The park also contained collections of statues, many of which were copies of great works from around the world.
Crystal Palace park was also the scene of spectacular Brock’s fireworks displays.
The Bauhaus school
encouraged the modern movement to move along. It brought together architects, painters, and designers from many countries to set goals for the visual arts in the modern age.International Style was started by the Bahaus architects and prevailed after the 1930s.Postmodern Architecture started when architects and critics between 1965 and 1980. they said that postmodernists value individuality, complexity, and sometimes even humor.
Empire state building
Construction began in March 1930. completed in 14 months
Architects: Shreve, Lamb, & Harmon Associates.
was the tallest building in the world with 102 storey.
LOCATION: New York
Year of construction:1887
18,000 pieces ,five meters each used to construct.
Tower were specifically designed and calculated, traced out to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimeter